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AISI 316: PROPERTIES OF STAINLESS STEEL AISI TYPE 316

What is AISI 316

UNS number:  S31600 
Common names:   18/8 steel

AISI 316 is an austenitic stainless steel from the 18/8 family. The alloy is almost similar to AISI 304 in composition but with 2% molybdenum. The addition of molybdenum gives the grad improved corrosion resistance. The alloys is normally supplied solution annealed/treated, but can also be supplied cold worked with higher strength properties. The “L” grade has a reduced carbon level to improve corrosion resistance after welding and is more commonly available (UNS S31603). Typical yield strength is 205MPa and tensile strength is 515 MPa. ISO 15156-3 limits the hardness to 22 HRC max.
Category Steel
Class Stainless steel
Type Austenitic standard
Common Names Chromium-Nickel steel
Designations  France: AFNOR Z 6 CND 17.11
Germany: DIN 1.4401
Italy: UNI X 5 CrNIMo 17 12
Japan: JIS SUH 309 , JIS SUS 316 , JIS SUS Y 316
Sweden: SS 2347
United Kingdom: B.S. 316 S 16 , B.S. 316 S 18 , B.S. 316 S 25 , B.S. 316 S 26 , B.S. 316 S 30 , B.S. 316 S 40 , B.S. 316 S 41 , B.S. En. 58 H
United States: AMS 5524 , AMS 5573 , AMS 5648 , AMS 5690 , AMS 5691 , ASME SA182 , ASME SA193 , ASME SA194 , ASME SA213 , ASME SA240 , ASME SA249 , ASME SA312 , ASME SA320 , ASME SA358 , ASME SA376 , ASME SA403 , ASME SA409 , ASME SA430 , ASME SA479 , ASME SA688 , ASTM A167 , ASTM A182 , ASTM A193 , ASTM A194 , ASTM A213 , ASTM A240 , ASTM A249 , ASTM A269 , ASTM A276 , ASTM A312 , ASTM A313 , ASTM A314 , ASTM A320 , ASTM A358 , ASTM A368 , ASTM A376 , ASTM A403 , ASTM A409 , ASTM A430 , ASTM A473 , ASTM A478 , ASTM A479 , ASTM A580 , FED QQ-S-763 , FED QQ-S-766 , FED QQ-W-423 , MIL SPEC MIL-S-5059 , MIL SPEC MIL-S-862 , SAE 30316 , SAE J405 (30316) , UNS S31600

Composition

Element Weight %
C  0.08 
Mn  2.00 
Si  1.00 
Cr  16.0-18.0 
Ni  10.0-14.0 
P  0.045 
S  0.03 
Mo  2.0-3.0 


Mechanical Properties
Properties  Conditions 
T (°C) Treatment
Density (×1000 kg/m3) 8 25
Poisson's Ratio 0.27-0.30 25
Elastic Modulus (GPa) 193 25
Tensile Strength (Mpa) 515  25  hot finished and annealed (wire) 
Yield Strength (Mpa) 205 
Elongation (%) 40 
Reduction in Area (%) 50 
Hardness (HRB) 95 (max)  25  annealed (plate, sheet, strip) 


Thermal Properties
Properties  Conditions 
T (°C) Treatment
Thermal Expansion (10-6/ºC) 15.9  0-100 
Thermal Conductivity (W/m-K) 16.2  100 
Specific Heat (J/kg-K) 500  0-100 


Electric Properties
Properties  Conditions 
T (°C) Treatment
Electric Resistivity (10-9W-m) 740  25 



More information: AISI 316
Chemical composition: C=0.08%max, Mn=2%max, Cr=17%, Ni=12%, Mo=2.5%
Property Value in metric unit Value in US unit
Density 8.0 *10³ kg/m³ 499 lb/ft³
Modulus of elasticity 193 GPa 28000 ksi
Thermal expansion (20 ºC) 15.9*10-6 ºCˉ¹ 8.8*10-6 in/(in* ºF)
Specific heat capacity 502 J/(kg*K) 0.12 BTU/(lb*ºF)
Thermal conductivity 16.2 W/(m*K) 112 BTU*in/(hr*ft²*ºF)
Electric resistivity 7.4*10-7 Ohm*m 7.4*10-5 Ohm*cm
Tensile strength (annealed) 586 MPa 85000 psi
Yield strength (annealed) 241 MPa 35000 psi
Elongation (annealed) 55 % 55 %
Hardness (annealed) 80 RB 80 RB
Tensile strength (cold drawn) 620 MPa 89900 psi
Yield strength (cold drawn) 415 MPa 60200 psi
Elongation (cold drawn) 45 % 45 %
Hardness (cold drawn) 91 RB 91 RB
 --------------------------------------------

Read more: AISI 316

Delivery conditions

Solution annealed/treated. Can also be supplied cold worked with higher strength properties as for bolts (A4-80, A4-100)

Applications

Typical applications are:
  • Sand screen wire
  • Instrumentation lines for downhole cabling at temperatures below 100ºC
  • Gas lift equipment
  • Bolts

Chemical composition

Table 1: Chemical composition


C Si Mn P S Ni Cr Mo Al Ti
Min - - - - - 10.0 16.0 2.0 - -
Max 0.08 0.1 2.0 0.045 0.03 14 18.0 3.0 - -


Nb(Cb) Cu Co B Fe W V N O PREN
Min - - - - Bal - - - - 22.6
Max - - - - - - - 0.1 - 29.4
Pitting index PREN = %Cr + 3.3%Mo + 16%N
The L grade limits the carbon content to 0.03% max.

Mechanical and physical properties

An introduction to mechanical and physical properties follows. These properties are dependent on the alloy, heat treatment and cold working. Detailed data is available in material datasheets from suppliers and material property handbooks.
Table 2: Mechanical properties, solution annealed

Mechanical properties -75ºC 20ºC 200ºC
Tensile strength, yield (min.) - 205 MPa (30ksi) -
Tensile strength, yield (typical) - - -
Tensile strength, ultimate (min.) - 515 MPa (75ksi) -
Tensile strength, ultimate (typical) - - -
Tensile modulus (typical) - 200 GPa -
Torsion modulus (typical) - 82 GPa -
Elongation (min.) - 30% -
Red. of area (min.) - 50% -
Charpy V-notch impact (typical) 135 Joules - -
Fracture toughness KIC (typical) - - -
Hardness (ISO 15156-3 limit) - 22 HRC -
Hardness (typical) -
-
Fatigue strength (% of T.S.U) - - -
Table 3: Physical properties

Physical properties -40ºC 20ºC 200ºC
Density - 8.00 kg/dm3 -
Thermal expansion coefficient - 16.5 x10-6/ºC -
Thermal conductivity - 14.6 Wm-1K-1 -
Specific heat - 450 JKg-1K-1 -
Electrical resistivity - 0.740 μΩm -
Poisson’s ratio - - -
Magnetic permeability - 1.008 -

Machining and welding properties

Both machining and welding properties are good.

Failure mechanism resistance

Table 4: Failure mechanism resistance

Poor Good Excellent
Chloride Stress Corrosion Cracking Pitting and crevice corrosion -
Adhesive wear Sulphide stress cracking -
General descriptions of failure mechanisms are given in the failure mechanism database.

Surface treatments

NA

Processing problems

NA

Design codes

Relevant design codes are:
  • ISO 15156-3

Costs

Inexpensive.
Source: efunda.com, exprobase.com,

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